A ball mill is a type of grinder used to grind and blend bulk material into QDs/nanosized using different sized balls. The working principle is simple; impact and attrition size reduction take place as the ball drops from near the top of a rotating hollow cylindrical shell.
Description: The purpose of a packed bed is typically to improve contact between two phases in a chemical or similar process.
Double-pipe heat exchangers are devices that provide the transfer of thermal energy between two fluids at different temperatures. The major use of these heat exchangers is the sensible heating or cooling process of fluids where small heat transfer areas are required.
Heat Transfer through composite walls is one of them. It is the transport of energy between two or more bodies of different thermal conductivity arranged in series or parallel.
When heat exchangers are horizontal, the flow is unaffected by gravity and flows only due to pressure difference. In vertical or inclined flow, gravity is an acting party and thus, flow is comparatively faster. This gives comparatively greater amount of time for heat exchange which gives better results.
The Bernoulli test apparatus consists of a tapered duct (venturi), a series of manometers tapped into the venturi to measure the pressure head, and a hypodermic probe that can be traversed along the center of the test section to measure the total head.
Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids. They transport fluids by conversion of energies.
This instrument used to measure the flow rate of fluid flow through a pipe.
Description: Notch Apparatus is designed for the study of flow measurement in open channels using notches & calibration of notches. The set-up consists of an Open Flow Channel, rectangular in cross-section. Water enters from one end of the channel & at the other end, a notch is fitted.
Description: A fluid flow measuring device that consists of a tapered nozzle arrangement within a pipeline. The device is designed to increase the velocity of the fluid with a corresponding decrease in pressure. A measurement of the difference between the upstream and nozzle pressure gives an indication of flow rate.
Description: To improve contact between two phases in a chemical or similar process
Description: Pressure drop in two-phase flow is a major design variable, governing the pumping power required to transport two-phase fluids and also governing the recirculation rate in natural circulation systems. The conservation equations for two-phase flow are a subset of those for Multiphase Flow.
Description: An adiabatic batch reactor is a closed system with no input and output streams. This reactor be operated under condition like adiabatic (Temp. of Reaction Mass keep on changing), perfectly mixed (composition of reaction mixture is uniform throughout) volume is also constant.
Description: This training system is used to study a non-catalytic homogeneous second order liquid phase reaction under ambient conditions in a combined flow reactor. The training system consists of two reactors connected in series; one is plug flow reactor and the other is mixed flow reactor.
Description: A batch reactor is a closed system with no input and output streams. A batch reactor can operate under conditions like Isothermal (Temperature of Reaction Mass remains constant), Perfectly mixed (composition of reaction mixture is uniform throughout), and constant volume (volume of the reaction mixture within the reactor remains constant, there is no appreciable change in the density of reaction mass). This set-up is used to study a non- catalytic homogeneous reaction under isothermal condition. The set up consists of a Reactor fitted in a constant temperature water bath. One stirrer is fitted for mixing the reactants in reactor and other is fitted in water bath to keep the uniform temperature throughout in the bath. The temperature of bath can be maintained from ambient to 90C with the help of Digital Temperature indicator Cum Controller. Samples can be taken out with the help of a sampling pipette.
PFR is an idealized flow reactor such that along the direction of the flow all the reaction mixture are moving along at the same speed; there is no mixing or back flow.
The set-up consists of one feed tank through which water is fed to the reactor. The flow rate can be adjusted by operating the needle valve and measured by rotameter. The compressed air is used for circulation of feed. It is a straight tube type plug flow reactor made of glass is provided. Reactants enter at lower end and exit at the top of straight tube type reactor from where samples are collected for analysis. For understanding the RTD characteristics, a special arrangement to inject tracer into the starting of reactor, using a syringe is provided. Pressure regulator & pressure gauge are fitted at the compressed air line.
Cascade control involves the use of two controllers with the output of the first controller providing the set point for the second controller, the feedback loop for one controller nestling inside the other . Such a system can give a improved response to disturbances.
The first order control systems are stable with impulse and step inputs because these responses have bounded output. But, the impulse response doesn't have steady state term. So, the step signal is widely used in the time domain for analysing the control systems from their responses.
The second order process time constant is the speed that the output response reaches a new steady state condition. An overdamped second order system may be the combination of two first order systems.
When the system is an interacting system is the change in one input has an impact on other outputs. When neither one or more inputs or outputs of a system affect an output or more than one output of the system, it is called a non-interacting system
Level measurement is the linear distance between the top surface of a liquid or solid and a predetermined reference point like in a tank.
I/P and P/I converters are a type of pneumatic fitting that can change pneumatic pressures in response to varying electrical current and voltage input signals. These converters can be mounted in control rooms or in the field.
ADSORPTION IN PACKED BED:
Cross FLow Membrane Filtartion Unit
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
High Pressure Homogenizer
Hollow Fibre Membrane Filtration Unit
Pressure Drop In 2-Phase Flow
UV Visible Spectrophotometer
Pressure Drop In 2-Phase Flow
UV Visible Spectrophotometer